Wednesday, 31 October 2012

OUGD504 // Design for print // Book 3 content

Finishing includes a wide range of processes to provide the finishing touches to a design once the substrate has been printed. These processes include binding, special print techniques, laminates, varnishes and folding. All of these finishes can transform an ordinary-looking piece into something much more interesting and dynamic.

Binding is a process in which the pages of a publication are gathered and held together so that it can function as a book/publication.
Types of binding:
-       Comb bind
A spine of plastic rings that bind and allow a document to open flat

-       Spiral Bind
A spiral of metal wire that winds through punched holes allowing the publication to open flat

-       Wiro Bind
A spine of metal rings that bind and allow a document to open flat

-       Open Bind
A book without a cover to leave an exposed spine

-       Belly Band
A printed band that wraps around a publication to hold it together.

-       Singer Stitch
A binding method whereby the pages are sewn together with one continual thread.

-       Elastic Bind
An informal binding whereby an elastic band holds the pages together and nestles in the center fold.

-       Clips and Bolts
A fastening device that holds loose pages together. This usually requires the insertion of a punched or drilled hole for the bolt or clip to pass through.

-       Perfect Bound
The backs of sections are removed and held together with a flexible adhesive, which also attaches a paper cover to the spine and the fore edge trimmed flat.

-       Case or Edition bind
A common hard cover bookbinding method that sews signatures together, flattens the spine, applies endsheets and head and tailbands to the spine. Hard covers are attached, the spine is usually rounded and the grooves along the cover edge act as hinges.

-       Canadian
A wiro-bound publication with a wrap-around cover and an enclosed spine. A complete wrap-around cover is a full Canadian and a partial wrap-around is a half Canadian.

-       Saddle Stitch
Signatures are nested and bound with wire stitches, applies through the spine and along the centerfold.

-       Z-bind
A z-bind features a ‘z’ shaped cover, which is used to join two separate text blocks, with both sections having a perfect bind. This provides a clear yet functional way of separating different types of content.

Bookbinding is a variety of processes in which produce a finished book. Within the book itself, there are many elements and terminology that make up book, which you should know:

-       Head and Tailbands
Head and Tailbands can be patterned or coloured, depending on the fabric selected.

-       Bulk
The dust jacket spine measurement needs to take into account the book block bulk, when depends on the number of signatures, with the addition of 3mm for the boards. As a rule, the spine will measure whatever the bulk measures plus an extra 6-7mm.

-       Text block
The text block of book block is comprised of the printed signatures or sections that will form the pages of the publication.

-       Flaps
Flaps are an extension of the cover or dust jacket, which fold back into the publication. These keep the dust jacket attached around the publication and usually will hold information about the author, a synopsis on the work, or any other information. The flaps can be any size but 75mm is considered enough for the dust jacket to grip into the book.

-       End pages
These are the pages that secure the text block to the boards of the cover. They are typically made from a strong stock such as cartridge paper. 

-       Dual binding
Some publications feature dual bindings where two or more separate book blocks are united into one publication such as the z-bind.

Special Techniques
A range of techniques can give a designer the possibility of adding an extra element or value to design. These techniques are referred as special techniques and are applied to a product/project at the end of the printing process.

Speciality printing is a number of printing techniques that allow a designer to produce something different to a standard lithography print. These techniques tend to be more expensive, as there is the additional set up time required and only low volumes can be produced, but they can add a lot of aesthetical value to the work.

-       Perforation
Perforation or perf cutting is a process that creates a cut-out area in a stock paper to weaken it so it can detached. The process involves cutting small slits into the packaging or design, which when pulled away pulls that section off the packaging. It is usually used within mail outs and packages sent out to clients to show samples etc, it’s a more formal and creative envelope idea.

-       Duplexing
Duplexing is the bonding of two different stocks to form a single stock paper with different colours or textures on each side.

-       Thermography
Thermography is a print-finishing process that produces raised lettering by fusing thermographic powder to a design in an oven.

-       Foil Blocking
This is a process whereby a coloured foil is pressed on to a paper stock via a heated die.
There are different ways you can apply this process to a design. The first involves using glue, which the design is screen-printed onto the stock; the foil papers are then laid over the top and put under a heat press to activate the glue.
The second uses a normal laser printer, you would print off the design on a standard laser printer, then laying the foil papers over the design you can either use the heat press or a laminator to attach the foils onto the design. This way works because the ink used in a laser printer is heat activated, so when it is put under heat for the second time it becomes sticky which the foil papers then stick to. Usually you would find that using a laminator gives the best results because this has a constant pressure as the paper is taken through the machine and the speed of the laminator is a lot slower than the heat press, so there is more time for the process to work.

Embossing and Debossing
These two techniques are where a design is stamped into a substrate to produce a raised or indented surface.

-       Embossing
Embossing uses a magnesium, copper or brass die which holds the image to stamp into the stock and leave the impression. With an emboss it pushes the design through the stock to result in a raised surface, for this to happen the deign needs to be slightly oversized, with heavier lines and extra spacing between letterforms.
The copper and brass dies are more durable, so these should be used for high print runs, when using a thicker or abrasive stock, and also if the design is highly detailed.
If you are producing a detailed design then a thinner stock would be better to use, but detailed designs don’t also reproduce well. If you are embossing on a coated stock then be careful that the coating doesn’t crack; these stocks are good for holding detail. An uncoated stock is best for embossing deep designs and generally is a friendlier stock to use for embossing as not a lot can go wrong with it.
Embossing is can be used alongside Foil Blocking to add colour to the embossed area, but the majority of the time it is used blind to create a tactile element to a design.

-       Debossing
A deboss uses a metal die containing a design which is stamped from above on to the stock to leave an indentation. Debossing also produces better results on a thicker stock because a deeper indentation can be applied.

The result of an emboss or deboss depends upon the fineness of the design and the stock thickness. Generally thinner stocks can hold finer lines, but there is a danger of puncturing the stock, on the other hand thicker stocks are more robust, but lose detail as there are more paper fibres to press through. Choosing the right stock for the process is essential and so is the design; you need to make sure you have the balance right.

Cutting Methods
Cutting methods are ways in which you can remove a certain part of a design. There are three main methods in doing this, die, laser and kiss cutting.

-       Die cutting
Die cutting uses a steel die to cut away specified sections of a design. It is mainly used to add a decorative element to a print job and to enhance the visual performance of the piece.

-       Laser cutting
Laser cutting uses a laser to cut shapes into the stock rather than the use of a metal tool. Laser cutting can produce more intricate designs with a cleaner edge, but the heat of the laser can burn the cut edges. Laser cutting can be used on a high volume scale, as it is a fast set up and quick process.

-       Kiss cutting
This is a die cutting method, but is used with self-adhesive stock. The process works the same as die cutting but it only cuts through one layer, leaving the backing sheet of the adhesive stock uncut; this is so the top layer can be removed easily. You would use kiss cutting for stickers.
For the process to work, you need to have a separate cutter guide set up as a layer on top of your design, this is how the machine knows where to cut.

Laminates and Varnishes
Laminates and varnishes are print finishes that are applied to the printed job to add a finishing surface to the design.

-       Laminates
A laminate is a layer of plastic coating that is heat-sealed on to the stock to produce a smooth and resistant finish to the printed product; it also acts as a protective layer to the stock.

Types of Laminates:
- Matt
a matt laminate helps diffuse light and reduce glare to increase the readability of text heavy designs.
- Satin
This laminate provides a finish that is between matt and gloss. It provides some highlight, but its not as flat as matt.   
- Gloss
A highly reflective laminate that is used to enhance the appearance of graphic elements and photographs on covers as it increases colour saturation.
- Sand
A laminate that creates a subtle sand grain within a design
- Leather
A laminate that gives a subtle leather texture to a design.

-       Varnishes
A varnish is a colourless coating that is applied to a printed job to protect it from wear or smudging and also to enhance the visual appearance of the design or elements within it.

Types of Varnishes:
- Gloss
Colours will appear richer and more vivid when printed with a gloss varnish; so photographs will appear sharper and more saturated. This finish is often used for brochures.

- Matt
This is the opposite of the gloss finish. A matt coating will soften the appearance of a printed image. It will also make text easier to read as it diffuses light.

- Neutral
This appears as an almost invisible coating, but it seals the printing ink without affecting the appearance of the finished job. It is often used to speed up the drying the process on fast turnaround print jobs.

- Pearlescent
A varnish that subtly reflects colours to give a luxurious effect.

- Satin
This coating tends to represent a midway point between gloss and matt finishes.

- Textured Spot UV
Textures can be applied to a design through the use of a spot UV. The textures that can be obtained are sandpaper, leather. Crocodile skin and raised.

- UV varnish
A UV varnish can be applied to a printed paper and dried by exposure to UV radiation in order to create a coating that is glossier than any other. A printed page with this varnish will feel shiny and slightly sticky. UV varnish can be applied all over a publication (full-bleed UV) or to a certain part of a design (spot UV).

OUGD504 // Design for Print // Book 2 content

-   Set up of print
- Printing processes
- Printing techniques
- Stock

Set up of print
A designer communicates the printing requirements for the design through the print order, this also includes the printing processes to be used, the stock, print run and any special finishes.

-       Understanding print order
A print order is the sequence in which the different colours within a design are laid down and printed within the printing process. For the CMYK printing process, the order in which the ink is laid down is- Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and then black. Within the CMYK printing ink, ‘K’ refers to black but does actually stand for KEY; this is because all the other colours use black to ‘key’ to when registered.
The acronym CMYK implies the order in which the colours are printed, but printers will sometimes change this order when they have seen the artwork. This is often changed if a design contains large areas of flat colour or overprints.

-       Standard printing
A standard print would print a CMYK document in the order of Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and finally Black. If the inks are printed in a different order then it could cause the design to printed wrong and not display the colours how they should be.
In some instances, changing the order of the inks is needed to get an accurate print and to get the best quality of the print. If a large area of one colour is used within a design, this would often be printed first, then following that the CMYK process would follow, printing in the acronym order. Depending on the colours used in a design, the most dominant colour would be printed last. For instance if a yellow or orange was dominant; yellow would be printed last to act as a seal for the print. Black can sometimes print leaving uneven patches and pickering problems, hence printing it between the colours this wont happen.

-       Printing imposition
The imposition plan will plot where the different pages of a design will print. This plan also takes into consideration how it will be printed and folded. The imposition plan is important for the printer as it will determine what method to print the document in.
Printing methods:
- Sheet work – printing one side of a sheet of paper, turning it over and printing the other side with a separate plate.
- Work and Turn – printing one side of a sheet, turning it from front to back and printing the second side with the same sheet-edge alignment on the press.
- Work and tumble – Both sides of a sheet are set on one plate. The sheet is printed and turned over side to side to be printed again.
- Work and Twist – printing one half of the sheet, turning it 180 degrees and then going back through to print the other side.

Printing Processes
Printing is a process that applies ink from printing plates to a paper stock through the application of pressure.
- Offset Lithography
A printing process through which the inked image from a printing plate is transferred or offset on to a rubber blanket roller, this is then pressed against the paper stock. Lithography uses a smooth printing plate and uses the basis of oil and water, which repel each other. When the plates pass under the ink roller, the non-image areas have a water-based film, which repel the oily ink that has stuck to the image areas.
Lithography produces good photographic reproduction and fine line work on a variety of stocks. The printing plates are easy to prepare and high speeds are achievable with this machine, making it a low-cost printing method.
This process is available in sheet-fed presses and continuous web presses. The sheet-fed presses are used for lower production runs such as flyers, brochures and magazines. Web printing is used for high volume printing such as newspapers, magazines and reports.

- Web Offset
The difference between web offset and lithographic printing is that web offset uses a continuous roll of stock. This generates high printing speeds and lower cost per print for the higher volume printing jobs. Web offset printing is most commonly used with rotogravure and flexography because the printing plates used on these are more durable.

Add problems, if enough room

- Flexography
This printing process uses flexible printing plates made from either rubber or plastic. The inked plates have a slightly raised image; these are then rotated on a cylinder, which transfers the image to the stock. Flexography uses fast-drying inks, it is a high-speed print process and can print on to many types of absorbent and non-absorbent materials.
First developed for printing packaging materials, this process was traditionally a lower quality reproduction method, but it now competes with lithography and gravure.
Flexography has been widely used as a quick and economical way of applying simple designs and areas of colour to a wide variety of packaging materials, such as paper and plastic containers (including waxed-paper ones), corrugated-cardboard boxes, tape, envelopes, and metal foil.

- Gravure
This is a more common commercial print process, it happens by an image being engraved into a copper printing plate, this is then pressed directly onto the substrate.
The copper printing plate is created by using a laser or diamond tool to engrave the chosen image into it. Once it has been engraved, it holds the ink and transfers it to the stock. A separate plate is created for each colour separation within the design.
Gravure is a high speed printing process that can give the highest production volume; it is used for very large print jobs.

-       Pad Printing
Pad printing is a printing process that can transfer a 2-D image onto a 3-D object. This is accomplished by using an indirect offset (gravure) printing process that involves an image being transferred from the cliché via a silicone pad onto a substrate. Pad printing is used for printing on otherwise impossible products.
Pad printing is used for one off prints and also large runs; it is applied to medical, automotive, appliances and other products. It is a very adaptable process and can be used across lots of different media.

-       Digital
Digital printing is the process of printing from a digital based image directly to a variety of stock. The process is used for small job runs, which are printed, from desktop publishing software and other digital sources using large format and/or high volume laser or inkjet printers.
The advantage of digital print is that there are no printing plates, therefore the process is a lot quicker and cheaper to print the artwork, but the quality of the print isn’t as good.

Printing Techniques
- Letterpress
This is a method of relief printing whereby movable type is locked into a bed of a press; it is inked, and then rolled or pressed paper against a substrate to form an impression.
Letterpress was the first commercial printing method and was the source for many of the modern printing processes today.
Letterpress is made up of moveable type, which is made from single type blocks, cast lines or engraved plates. The type blocks are all different typefaces, so comprise of letterforms, numbers and characters.
To use the type blocks, you would create a sentence/block of writing with the letterforms and then lock them into the bed, ready to print.
In todays industry letterpress is still used but is seen to be a bespoke technique; it is used on short run jobs for the more decorative trades. To make the process work for the industry it is now used within a rotary press, this works in exactly the same way except it is a lot easier and can be reproduced at a higher volume.

- Screen printing
Screen printing is a printing method, which presses ink through a mesh screen. The mesh screen holds the design, which is either done by a stencil or by covering it in an impermeable substance, which covers the blank spaces allowing ink to be pressed through the openings to transfer onto the stock and show the design.
This process is a slow and low volume method, but it can be applied to a range of different substrates. The process allows specific colours to be applied and also be used to create a raised surface to add a tactile element to the design.

- Wood Block Printing
Block Printing is one of the oldest methods of printmaking and has been around for thousands of years. Since there is such a long history of block printing, there are lots of different techniques, but it is basically using a carved material coated in ink to transfer an image on to stock. The blocks used to print with can be made from wood, linoleum, rubber and other materials.
Designs that are printed with this technique are usually much bolder, since the blocks are carved by hand; there is less detail and more texture to transferred image.
Block printing is also referred as “relief printing” because the ink leaves a raised texture on the paper.  This is different to letterpress because with that process the image transferred leaves an indent on the paper; as block printing is done by hand, the ink sits on the surface adding a raised texture to the paper.
- Monoprinting
Monoprinting is a process that involves images, lines, textures and type that can only be made once; it is not reproduced.
A monoprint is created by building up layers within the design, this could be done through using screen printing, but also different craft materials such as graphite pencil, water colours, woodblock stamps. Each layer would be created on a screen and then transferred onto the stock by using printing medium or ink. Throughout the process the designer can make changes to each layer; adding elements or taking them away, this is how only one design can be produced.
Out of all the printing techniques this is most art influenced technique and isn’t used that much within graphic design, mainly because it is very time consuming and only one design an be done at a time. This technique could be used for a one off print, but as a commercial process it is not up to that standard
- Laser cutting

When printing a design or job the designer must select the stock to be printed on, this must be selected right as it can change the appearance and feel of the printed work. The designer must think about the design and objective of the work and make sure the stock will support and enhance the work.

Stock Qualities
When selecting and using a stock for printing you must look at the physical characteristics of the paper; the GSM, grain and paper direction.
-  GSM
Stands for grams per square meter. This is a weight measuring system that is part of the paper specification; it is based upon the weight of the paper for a square meter. The higher the GSM value is, the thicker and heavier a piece of paper will feel.

- Paper Grain
Paper produced on paper machine has a grain because the fibres from which it is made line up during the manufacturing process in the direction that it passes through the papermaking machine.  The grain is the direction in which most of the fibres lay. This characteristic means that paper is easier to fold, bend or tear along its grain direction.

- Direction
The direction of fibres in printing paper for laser printers typically have a grain that runs parallel to the long side of the paper. This is so the paper can pass through the printer easier.

Paper Types
Many different types of paper stock are available for any designer to use. Using a variety of paper stocks within one design can add to it and make it more interesting. Every stock has different printability characteristics and costs, which is something you must take into account. The main characteristics that affect printability are smoothness, absorbency, opacity and ink holdout.

- Smoothness
The smooth surface of these stocks is created through the used of filler elements. These are usually polished with calendaring rollers. This type of paper stock is typically glossy

- Absorbency
Stocks have different absorbency levels, which refer to the amount of ink that can penetrate the paper. Printing inks will dry quicker on absorbent stocks, as the paper will absorb the ink into it meaning there is less to dry on top, but this can cause problems with the print finish such as dot gain.

- Opacity
Opacity is used to describe the extent to which whatever is printed on one side of the paper shows through and is visible on the other side. It is measuring how easy light can pass through the paper. A high opacity paper stock will have no show through.

- Ink Holdout
This is the degree to which a stock resists ink penetration because of its lack of absorbency. Coated stocks will be prone to this as the ink sits on the surface of the stock, which increases the drying time.

Types of stocks
-       Coated paper
Paper with a clay or other coating applied to one or both sides. Coated papers are available in gloss, silk, or matt finish and are used for projects requiring a fine finish.
Coated paper generally produces sharper, brighter images and has better reflectivity than uncoated paper.
Used to print brochures, leaflets and posters. Typically used for high volume print runs.

-       Uncoated paper
Paper that doesn’t have any kind of coating applied is uncoated paper. Through not having a coating this stock is not as smooth as a coated page. There are many different finishes, colours and weights available with this type of paper and is generally a more absorbent stock.
Used for business stationery and in laser printers. Uncoated papers are usually used in conjunction with coated paper, to add extra texture to a project or on its own, as it is more cost effective.

-       Wove
Paper made on a closely woven wire roller or mold. It has a faint mesh pattern within the grain of the paper. This paper type is popular for stationery and book publishing.

-       Laid
Laid paper is a premium quality paper stock with a textured pattern of parallel lines within the grain. Commonly used for business stationery.

-       Bond
This is a economic, uncoated woven paper, often used for copying or in laser printers. A high quality bond stock would be used for letterheads

-       Antique
A high quality paper with a clay coating on both sides, leaving the paper with a textured finish. The stock is available with a rough or matt surface and is typically used to add texture to a design or publication. This stock would be good for halftones or a design that have a lot of definition and detail.

-       Artboard
Uncoated, stiff board. Typically used as a cover stock for publications.
-       Cartridge
A thick white paper, with a stiff feel. This stock is used a lot with artists and mainly within sketchbooks as ink and pencil drawings are produced well on it. The stock has a textured finish to it. Used mainly for sketchbooks, stationery and annual reports

-       Chromo
A waterproof coating is applied to one side of this stock to allow for embossing and varnishing processes to be used. This stock can be glossy or matt. Used for labels, wrappings and covers.

-       Greyboard
Lined or unlined board made from waste paper. It has a rough texture, good bulk and is grey in colour. Used for packaging material or covers for publications.

-       Mechanical
Produced using wood pulp and acidic chemicals, this paper is suitable for short term use as it yellows and fades quickly. It has a higher brightness and smoothness than newsprint, but it is uncoated, with a matt finish. The stock is used for newspapers and directories.

-       NCR
A carbonless coating to make duplicate copies. By applying pressure to the stock paper is will transfer the markings to a second layer of stock below.  Used for forms and purchase orders.

-       Newsprint
Made primarily of mechanically ground wood pulp, this is the cheapest paper than can withstand standard printing processes. It has a short life span and reproduction of colour is low quality. Used for newspapers and comics.

-       Plike
A rubbery substrate used for cover stock and flyers.

Sustainability within stocks
Sustainability is a key concern for many clients and consumers and plays a big part of commercial printing as so much paper is used but also wasted.
Many companies now opt for a more sustainable product that has used recycled products to produce the stock. This is reducing their environmental impact on the world, but still being able to have the printed products needed.

-       Sustainable printing
Sustainable printing is now an ever-growing concept within the printing industry as more and more companies are opting for this type of product. Many printers specialize in offering this environmentally friendly service.
Most people would think that sustainable printing just involves using a recycled stock paper, but it goes much further than that. Specialist sustainable printers will use chlorine-free paper, ‘waterless’ technology within the printing process and environmentally friendly inks, along with recycled paper. Not only is the use of sustainable products and printing processes reducing the impact, but graphic designer and clients can both contribute to this as well.
Graphic designers have a huge part in this, as they are the ones, which specify the print job. Simple changes to how a graphic designer works can also help, these could include, reducing point size to fit more text to a page, send PDF’s instead of print outs and sourcing the print estimate at the start of a job as there could be ways to save cost through changing formats etc.
Clients can also be more environmentally friendly too, they can specify from the start they want to use a sustainable stock/ink. The best way they can contribute to the reduce in waste within commercial printing is by providing a more accurate print run; thousands of over prints are wasted and thrown away by print companies everyday because the client didn’t need as much. Other ways involve the use of smaller formats and minimizing the use of different finishing techniques.
Throughout every stage of the printing process there are ways that sustainable products can be used, but also the mind set clients, designers and printers can all add to becoming a more environmental world. 

OUGD504 // Design for print // Book 1 content

BOOK 1 - Designing for print

Basic terminology
Within colour there are a lot of ways in which it can be described, using the following terms can help you communicate colour.

- Describing colour
As colour is different wavelengths of light, professionals use different values of hue, saturation and brightness to describe it. There are two main colour modes in which most designers work in:
This colour mode is made up of cyan, magenta, yellow and black. This colour system is subtractive, because as the colours overlap each other they combine and create a darker colour. As the C, M & Y overlap each other they create the RGB colour system, when all three overlap they create black. This colour system is used for print based media.
This colour mode is made up of Red, blue and green. This colour mode is addictive, because when the colours overlap and combine they create a lighter colour. As each individual colour overlaps each other they create the CMYK colours. When all three colours combine they create white. This colour mode is used for on screen design.

Brightness, hue and saturation
These terms help a designer specify and communicate the colour information. Using these terms the designer and client can meet the expectations of the client.
- Hue - hue or colour is the unique characteristic of a colour that helps us visually distinguish one colour from another. Hues or colours are formed by different wavelengths of light.
- Saturation - saturation or chroma refers to the purity of a colour. Saturation levels describe a colours tendency to move towards or away from grey.
- brightness - this is how light or dark a colour is. Changes of brightness can be achieved by adding black or white to a colour.

Colour management is the process that governs how colour is translated from one machine to another in the printing process. Colour management is needed to produce a consistent colour throughout the print process. Different machines respond and produce colour different, so you need to make sure you use the same colour throughout all print matter.

- Gamut & Colour space
Gamut and colour space are used by designers and printers to calculate the amount of colour that can be produce within a colour mode's range.
- Gamut
In the print industry the gamuts that are used are RGB & CMYK dependant on what the design is for depends which gamut needs to be used. The human eye can see more colours than what blithe RGB & CMYK can produce, which is a limitation, but one that the designers have to work with. RGB has a bigger colour range as it is used for on screen design, whereas CMYK is limited because of the inks used to print.
- CMYK gamut
When designing for print, you need to make sure that you are working in CMYK mode and when working with colour, this needs to be within the CMYK colour range, the best way to ensure this is by using the CMYK colour sliders to mix a colour within the software. If you use the colour picker this will show all colours available to use, but not necessarily ones that can be produced when printed, if a colour you select isn't within the CMYK colour range then a exclamation mark will appear next to the colour. The easiest way to get around this is to click the exclamation mark and it will select the next closest colour that is available in the CMYK colour range.
Another way to solve this problem is to use the 'gamut warning' within photoshop, when this is turned on the image you are working on will have grey areas over the sections of colour which cannot be produced when printed, to correct this you can use the 'hue/saturation' or 'levels' correction tools to bring these colours back into the colour range. The grey area will reduce when the colours are within the colour range.

- Colour space
A colour space provides a definition for the numerical value of the combination of colours present in a given pixel, each value will represent a different colour. Each different device uses a different colour space, so this value will always be different dependent on the device you use.
Changing the colour space will change the colour associated with that value, so you must make sure you are aware of the colour space an image or design is using when editing it.

Designers use a spot colour to make sure that a given colour in a design will print that exact colour. The main reason would be if a certain colour has be consistent across different formats and stock, or if a colour is outside of the colour range and cannot be produced from CMYK.

- Spot colours
A spot colour is a ready mixed ink, that has no combinations of colours mixed together, it is one single ink. When printed a spot colour prints as a solid colour and is not transparent in any way.
As said above designers will use a spot colour to print a certain colour in a design exactly the same, if printing across different stocks or in mass. This will make sure a consistent print quality is met for the design and it will look the same on every print.
It could also be used if the colour needed is outside of the colour range, or if a specific colour has been specified by a client to be used.
Other reasons may include:
If the colour was overlapping another colour, so it would prevent the colours from mixing. Or if the design needs a specific colour to be more vibrant or stand out from the rest a spot colour would be used.
- Mixing spot colours
As we have already discussed, spot colours are ready mixed inks, you can either buy these as mixed inks in pots or mix them using various base elements to a specific recipe. You can also mix up spot colour using other ready mixed spot colours. Some printers can mix this in house for you.
- Pantone colour system
The Pantone colour system is system which we use in England for spot colours. It is a system which allocates a unique reference number to each colour combination. Every Pantone library is exactly the same, which makes it easy for designers and printers to work together.
When a Pantone colour is used within a design, the colour combination and reference number is stored within the document information, so when the printer receives the document he can find this colour combination to use within the print. It is a very simple but effective system which makes the printing process a lot easier and more efficient.
All design software will include the Pantone colour system within it, so any designer can access the libraries where ever they are.

Colour makes a design more dynamic and aesthetically pleasing, by elevating certain elements and attracting attention to specific parts of the design. Creative colour techniques can dramatically change the appearance of a design and also add to it.
- Colour layers
The first and easiest way to use colour creatively within a design is to use the blending options, these are preset blending modes which can be used when layering images on top of each other. The good thing about this is that the original image below will keep its contrast and detail intact.
- Multi-tones
Multi-tones are again layers of colour built up on top of an image, there are several different types:
- monotone // duotone // tritone // quadtone
- Monotone: All multi-tone images start off being monotone and use a monotone image as the base layer. A monotone image is one that works with one colour only, this can be any colour and tends to be done with spot colours. If you are creating a duotone etc then the base monotone image, normally is made with black.
- duotone: a duotone image is one made up of two colours. The first colour would usually be black and be the basis of the monotone base image.
- tritone: this is an image that is made up of three colours. Within photoshop there are presets set up that use tritones such as: sepia and other image overlays.
- quad tone: an Mage made up from four colours.

Half tones
The printing process that uses CMYK but produces them in different sized half-tone dots. When viewed once printed the eye is fooled into seeing a continuous image, but really it isn't.

If you are designing a booklet then the outcome has to have pages in multiple of 4, as once sheet of paper will hold 4 pages.
The same rules as above applies to the use of panels, which is another way to fold a printed sheet.

Add in screen angles

Tints and mixing colours:
Process and special colours can be used along side tints and overprinting to introduce new colour effects within a design.

A tint is a colour, which is created by using either a spot colour, a CMYK or RGB process colour. Using these colours you mix it with white to create a lighter version of the original colour. To do this within digitally, you would select the colour and make it a global swatch, when you then go to the colour slider it will only let you edit the swatch colour as a tint.
The advantage of using a tint is if you are limited to a certain number of colours within a design, using a tint will introduce a new colour but only use the same colour ink when printed. It is a good way to get around a limited colour design and print budget, but still design a good piece of artwork.

Overprint is where once ink overlaps another and when printed they mix to create a different colour. To overprint effectively, you need to know the order in which the process colours print, in order to use overprint to the best of its ability. Overprinting can produce creative effects within a design piece and works well when used with graphics and images.
Add in info from pre press overprint

Tints of two colours or more process colours can be combined to create a new colour combination, using the multi-ink tool.
When creating a multi-ink you can select different colours and tints to mix, changing the percentage of each colour in the mix, will effect the outcome of the new colour; as more colours are selected into the mix, the colour will become darker.
This is a useful tool to use, if you are restricted to a two-colour design, as mixing them two colours in different percentage will introduce new colours that you can use within the design.

A Note about percentages within a colour mix:
As a CMYK ink can be applied with a value ranging from 0 to 100 percent, a colour will therefore be expressed as a percentage of each colour within the mix. The total number of these values shouldn’t exceed 240 because any colour over this amount will result in a ‘muddy’ colour.
You can also have the opposite effect if not enough colour is added to the mix and the colour becomes too light, and when printed it won’t register properly; this is referred as a ‘drop off’.
Tints are produced using half-tone dots, so a rule with mixing tints is that you must you at least 10% of an ink within a colour mix, anything less than 10% may not be reproduced well in the printing process

Tint Charts
Tint charts show the different variations of colours that can be obtained when you combine different colour together. Using Cyan, Magenta and Yellow, you can create over 1,000 new tints and if you introduce Black then even more can be created.
A tint chart is created so that designers have a reasonable idea of what a colour combination will look like when printed. But they must remember that it is not 100% accurate as there are dependents such as – colour control, the press used and stock used that could determine the outcome of the colour.

Here we will talk about artwork in the means of how to set up and use the document within a software program. This will cover the basics of formats and registration to trapping and knockouts. All these aspects of the artwork need to be correct in order to produce a accurate print.

Document set up
Setting the page right:
Once you have sent your work to print, it is very unlikely that you will be able to make changes to the file or correct any mistakes. Making sure the document is right and everything is set up correct, it is necessary to spend more time on this.

-       Preparing colour for print:
Once a piece of design has been completed, the designer will carry out a number of checks to make sure the document is set up right, so that there is clear communication between the designer, printer and client.

The designer must review certain aspects of the document that may cause problems during the printing process.  Innovative use of the printing processes can also help reduce the printing cost. Using the checklist below will eliminate some of the problems, which could occur when printing:
1.     Delete all unused colours
2.     Ensure all that you want to print in black is actually black, not registration
3.     Ensure that everything that should be in registration is registration and not black.
4.     Ensure all spot colours are accounted for, if the job is printing with special colours it is okay, if the job is printing with CMYK, make everything CMYK
5.     Ensure all images are converted to CMYK and not RGB; This includes logos, maps additional icons. In some circumstances it may be better to leave them as RGB, so they convert themselves to the right colour profile, but that will be specified.
6.     Ensure you are clear that your colour-fall matches the printer’s expectations. If a four colour job is been requested to print, then make sure the document specifies four colours to print with,
7.     Ensure your imported swatches are of the right value, if the job is being printed on uncoated stock, and then make sure the spot colours are from the uncoated library.

Printed pages and panels:
Printed pages are the actual number of pages printed and not the number of sheets printed on.
E.g. a booklet that is made up of four sheets with print on every side will have eight printed pages once folded.
The easy way to remember this is that one sheet printed double sided is equal to two printed pages.

-       Formats
Standard paper sizes provide a convenient and efficient means for the designer. It enables the designer and printer to communicate well and know that the design will be printed to the correct specifications.

-       Paper and envelope sizes:
Standardised paper sizes provide a all round ease of selecting paper and which size to use, having the different paper sizes which all together make it way for a designer to plan what sizes they need to use for a design, also when printing you can print multiples and set it up easy.

ISO – The ISO standard provides a range of standard paper sizes, so that it can cater for all common printing needs. The ISO range of paper is split down into 3 categories; A , B and C sizes, each category is used for a different purpose:
-       A sizes – This series of paper sizes is used for all print matter. It is used to print anything from posters and technical drawings to magazines, office paper and postcards.
-       B sizes – This series of paper sizes are used for printing books
-       C sizes – This series of paper sizes are used for printing envelopes to fit A sizes. Also known as DL.

The DL envelope sizes allow an A4 sheet with two horizontal and/or parallel folds to fit inside. The envelope and any DL sized compliment slips are the same width as an A4 sheet of paper.

SRA paper sizes are used in commercial printing companies because it is slightly larger than the A series and provides room for grip, trim and bleed which is needed for an accurate print. These paper series are untrimmed raw paper. RA stands for ‘raw format A’ and SRA stands for ‘supplementary raw format A’. Once the sheets have been printed and binded, it will be cut down to match the A format.

Book and Poster Series:
-          Book sizes
Books come in a wide variety of sizes, to provide a range of different formats to suit different types of content that will be used within books. A book format is determined by the size of the original sheet of paper used to print on.
Folio editions are formed from signatures once folded to make the separate booklets. Quarto editions are made from signatures folded twice and Octavo made from signatures folded three times.
Each edition and book size is based on the standard ISO and RSA paper sizes, so they will have a relation to one of the paper sizes within those series.

-       Poster sizes
Posters also work to a standard size series to make the production of them much easier and simpler. The A series poster system is based on the single sheet which is 762 x 508 mm in the portrait orientation.
The rest of the series is made up by using multiples of this:
-       4 sheet – 1524 x 1016 mm
-       12 sheet – 1524 x 3048 mm
-       48 sheet – 3048 x 6096 mm
-       96 sheet – 3048 x 12192 mm

Bleed, registration and trim
When printing your work, the responsibility of the accuracy and quality of it, is passed onto the printer, but there is ways in which you the designer can reduce the margin of error within your document.

The simplest way to do this is by using bleed and slug within a document.
-       A bleed is an area outside of your artwork, usually 3mm (can differ with different printers, but they will specify) that you would extend all the elements in design near the edge of the printed area to. A bleed is usually used if the artwork goes right up to the edge of the page, extending the design past the edges and into the bleed means when the design is trimmed down to the correct size no white/stock colour will be left behind.
-       A slug is again an area outside of the print area; this extends outside of the bleed and is used for any document information. It will display the document name and time printed, you can also add more details to be printed into this area during the printing process:
-       Trim marks
-       Notes
-       Registration marks
-       Colour mode
Once the document has been trimmed the all the information within the slug area will be cut away.

Registration is used to align two or more printed images with each other on the same stock.
If you are doing a one colour print job then registration is no problem as there will be nothing to align within the printing plates. The issue is when you come to using two or more colours, in the commercial printing process each colour within a design is printed on a separate printing plate, so registering these plates on top of each other is difficult. Mis-registration can cause a blurred image or show the different colours used in the mix within the design. To make the registration more accurate you can add registration marks to your document, this will print on every colour layer and be a way in which the printer can align each layer together.

Once your artwork has been printed, the printer will then take it to be trimmed. This process is where the waste stock around the edge of the artwork is cut away to leave the final design and format.
To trim the artwork down, you would add trim marks to your document, which will be displayed in the bleed and slug area.

When printing a colour job especially one that contains two or more colours, which overlap, the one thing you need to be accurate is the colour registration. This is not always possible and is a factor that you can never control. However there is a way in which you can help eliminate this, which is by using ink trapping.
Trapping is the compensation for mis-registration between printing units on a multicolor press. The process involves creating overlaps (spreads) or under laps (chokes) of objects during the print production process.

The ‘lighter’ color within a design should always be spread into the darker. This reflects the way the human eye perceives color: since the darker colors define the shapes we see, distortion of the lighter color will result in less visible distortion overall.
It is important to know that the darker color always keeps its shape. The neutral density of a color is used to determine its darkness.

Spread and Choke
When a mis-registration happens within a colour design, you will see a white gap or the colour of the stock between the two colours, to stop this from happening there are 3 ways in which trapping can be applied:
-       Spread - The lighter colour becomes bigger, because it spreads into the darker colour (lighter colour in the foreground)
-       Choke – The darker colour becomes smaller, because the lighter colour has expanded into that area. (lighter colour in the background)
-       Centered – Both spread and choke are applied – this is rarely used.

Knockout and Overprint
Whilst you can use trapping to register colour, there other techniques that don’t involve trapping which can also reducing mis-registration; knockout and overprint.
-       Knockout – The process in which you would remove an area within one colour for the second colour that is printed on top to sit within.
-        Overprint – This process is where the area of the two colours which overlap mix together and produces a new colour.

Reverse out and Surprint