Wednesday, 31 October 2012

OUGD504 // Design for print // Book 3 content

Finishing includes a wide range of processes to provide the finishing touches to a design once the substrate has been printed. These processes include binding, special print techniques, laminates, varnishes and folding. All of these finishes can transform an ordinary-looking piece into something much more interesting and dynamic.

Binding is a process in which the pages of a publication are gathered and held together so that it can function as a book/publication.
Types of binding:
-       Comb bind
A spine of plastic rings that bind and allow a document to open flat

-       Spiral Bind
A spiral of metal wire that winds through punched holes allowing the publication to open flat

-       Wiro Bind
A spine of metal rings that bind and allow a document to open flat

-       Open Bind
A book without a cover to leave an exposed spine

-       Belly Band
A printed band that wraps around a publication to hold it together.

-       Singer Stitch
A binding method whereby the pages are sewn together with one continual thread.

-       Elastic Bind
An informal binding whereby an elastic band holds the pages together and nestles in the center fold.

-       Clips and Bolts
A fastening device that holds loose pages together. This usually requires the insertion of a punched or drilled hole for the bolt or clip to pass through.

-       Perfect Bound
The backs of sections are removed and held together with a flexible adhesive, which also attaches a paper cover to the spine and the fore edge trimmed flat.

-       Case or Edition bind
A common hard cover bookbinding method that sews signatures together, flattens the spine, applies endsheets and head and tailbands to the spine. Hard covers are attached, the spine is usually rounded and the grooves along the cover edge act as hinges.

-       Canadian
A wiro-bound publication with a wrap-around cover and an enclosed spine. A complete wrap-around cover is a full Canadian and a partial wrap-around is a half Canadian.

-       Saddle Stitch
Signatures are nested and bound with wire stitches, applies through the spine and along the centerfold.

-       Z-bind
A z-bind features a ‘z’ shaped cover, which is used to join two separate text blocks, with both sections having a perfect bind. This provides a clear yet functional way of separating different types of content.

Bookbinding is a variety of processes in which produce a finished book. Within the book itself, there are many elements and terminology that make up book, which you should know:

-       Head and Tailbands
Head and Tailbands can be patterned or coloured, depending on the fabric selected.

-       Bulk
The dust jacket spine measurement needs to take into account the book block bulk, when depends on the number of signatures, with the addition of 3mm for the boards. As a rule, the spine will measure whatever the bulk measures plus an extra 6-7mm.

-       Text block
The text block of book block is comprised of the printed signatures or sections that will form the pages of the publication.

-       Flaps
Flaps are an extension of the cover or dust jacket, which fold back into the publication. These keep the dust jacket attached around the publication and usually will hold information about the author, a synopsis on the work, or any other information. The flaps can be any size but 75mm is considered enough for the dust jacket to grip into the book.

-       End pages
These are the pages that secure the text block to the boards of the cover. They are typically made from a strong stock such as cartridge paper. 

-       Dual binding
Some publications feature dual bindings where two or more separate book blocks are united into one publication such as the z-bind.

Special Techniques
A range of techniques can give a designer the possibility of adding an extra element or value to design. These techniques are referred as special techniques and are applied to a product/project at the end of the printing process.

Speciality printing is a number of printing techniques that allow a designer to produce something different to a standard lithography print. These techniques tend to be more expensive, as there is the additional set up time required and only low volumes can be produced, but they can add a lot of aesthetical value to the work.

-       Perforation
Perforation or perf cutting is a process that creates a cut-out area in a stock paper to weaken it so it can detached. The process involves cutting small slits into the packaging or design, which when pulled away pulls that section off the packaging. It is usually used within mail outs and packages sent out to clients to show samples etc, it’s a more formal and creative envelope idea.

-       Duplexing
Duplexing is the bonding of two different stocks to form a single stock paper with different colours or textures on each side.

-       Thermography
Thermography is a print-finishing process that produces raised lettering by fusing thermographic powder to a design in an oven.

-       Foil Blocking
This is a process whereby a coloured foil is pressed on to a paper stock via a heated die.
There are different ways you can apply this process to a design. The first involves using glue, which the design is screen-printed onto the stock; the foil papers are then laid over the top and put under a heat press to activate the glue.
The second uses a normal laser printer, you would print off the design on a standard laser printer, then laying the foil papers over the design you can either use the heat press or a laminator to attach the foils onto the design. This way works because the ink used in a laser printer is heat activated, so when it is put under heat for the second time it becomes sticky which the foil papers then stick to. Usually you would find that using a laminator gives the best results because this has a constant pressure as the paper is taken through the machine and the speed of the laminator is a lot slower than the heat press, so there is more time for the process to work.

Embossing and Debossing
These two techniques are where a design is stamped into a substrate to produce a raised or indented surface.

-       Embossing
Embossing uses a magnesium, copper or brass die which holds the image to stamp into the stock and leave the impression. With an emboss it pushes the design through the stock to result in a raised surface, for this to happen the deign needs to be slightly oversized, with heavier lines and extra spacing between letterforms.
The copper and brass dies are more durable, so these should be used for high print runs, when using a thicker or abrasive stock, and also if the design is highly detailed.
If you are producing a detailed design then a thinner stock would be better to use, but detailed designs don’t also reproduce well. If you are embossing on a coated stock then be careful that the coating doesn’t crack; these stocks are good for holding detail. An uncoated stock is best for embossing deep designs and generally is a friendlier stock to use for embossing as not a lot can go wrong with it.
Embossing is can be used alongside Foil Blocking to add colour to the embossed area, but the majority of the time it is used blind to create a tactile element to a design.

-       Debossing
A deboss uses a metal die containing a design which is stamped from above on to the stock to leave an indentation. Debossing also produces better results on a thicker stock because a deeper indentation can be applied.

The result of an emboss or deboss depends upon the fineness of the design and the stock thickness. Generally thinner stocks can hold finer lines, but there is a danger of puncturing the stock, on the other hand thicker stocks are more robust, but lose detail as there are more paper fibres to press through. Choosing the right stock for the process is essential and so is the design; you need to make sure you have the balance right.

Cutting Methods
Cutting methods are ways in which you can remove a certain part of a design. There are three main methods in doing this, die, laser and kiss cutting.

-       Die cutting
Die cutting uses a steel die to cut away specified sections of a design. It is mainly used to add a decorative element to a print job and to enhance the visual performance of the piece.

-       Laser cutting
Laser cutting uses a laser to cut shapes into the stock rather than the use of a metal tool. Laser cutting can produce more intricate designs with a cleaner edge, but the heat of the laser can burn the cut edges. Laser cutting can be used on a high volume scale, as it is a fast set up and quick process.

-       Kiss cutting
This is a die cutting method, but is used with self-adhesive stock. The process works the same as die cutting but it only cuts through one layer, leaving the backing sheet of the adhesive stock uncut; this is so the top layer can be removed easily. You would use kiss cutting for stickers.
For the process to work, you need to have a separate cutter guide set up as a layer on top of your design, this is how the machine knows where to cut.

Laminates and Varnishes
Laminates and varnishes are print finishes that are applied to the printed job to add a finishing surface to the design.

-       Laminates
A laminate is a layer of plastic coating that is heat-sealed on to the stock to produce a smooth and resistant finish to the printed product; it also acts as a protective layer to the stock.

Types of Laminates:
- Matt
a matt laminate helps diffuse light and reduce glare to increase the readability of text heavy designs.
- Satin
This laminate provides a finish that is between matt and gloss. It provides some highlight, but its not as flat as matt.   
- Gloss
A highly reflective laminate that is used to enhance the appearance of graphic elements and photographs on covers as it increases colour saturation.
- Sand
A laminate that creates a subtle sand grain within a design
- Leather
A laminate that gives a subtle leather texture to a design.

-       Varnishes
A varnish is a colourless coating that is applied to a printed job to protect it from wear or smudging and also to enhance the visual appearance of the design or elements within it.

Types of Varnishes:
- Gloss
Colours will appear richer and more vivid when printed with a gloss varnish; so photographs will appear sharper and more saturated. This finish is often used for brochures.

- Matt
This is the opposite of the gloss finish. A matt coating will soften the appearance of a printed image. It will also make text easier to read as it diffuses light.

- Neutral
This appears as an almost invisible coating, but it seals the printing ink without affecting the appearance of the finished job. It is often used to speed up the drying the process on fast turnaround print jobs.

- Pearlescent
A varnish that subtly reflects colours to give a luxurious effect.

- Satin
This coating tends to represent a midway point between gloss and matt finishes.

- Textured Spot UV
Textures can be applied to a design through the use of a spot UV. The textures that can be obtained are sandpaper, leather. Crocodile skin and raised.

- UV varnish
A UV varnish can be applied to a printed paper and dried by exposure to UV radiation in order to create a coating that is glossier than any other. A printed page with this varnish will feel shiny and slightly sticky. UV varnish can be applied all over a publication (full-bleed UV) or to a certain part of a design (spot UV).

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